Ongoing research supported by the appropriate tools is also required for exploration and management of the oceans, understanding its physical and biological components and processes as well as their interactions. Without such knowledge, it is not possible to fully determine the extent of the oceans’ resources and their potential uses or to understand their limitations and the potential impact of human activity.

Such research is particularly important in understanding and forecasting climate change and its potential effects. There are major ocean areas around the world where our knowledge is significantly deficient in this regard.

The subsectors under Ocean Observation & Science are:

Oceanography / Meteorology

Ocean Modelling / Forecasting

Data Fusion

Coastal Zone Management